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Miami (Template:IPAc-en or Template:IPAc-en) is a city located on the Atlantic coast in southeastern Florida and the county seat of Miami-Dade County, the most populous county in Florida and the ninth-most populous county in the United States with a population of 2,500,625.[1] The 42nd largest city proper in the United States, with a population of 399,457, it is the principal, central, and most populous city of the South Florida metropolitan area, the most populous metropolis in the Southeastern United States.[2] According to the US Census Bureau, Miami's metro area is the seventh most populous in the United States, with an estimated population of 5,547,051 in 2009.[3]

Miami is a major center and a leader in finance, commerce, culture, media, entertainment, the arts, and international trade.[4][5] In 2010, Miami ranked seventh in the United States in terms of finance, commerce, culture, entertainment, fashion, education, and other sectors. It ranked thirty-third among global cities.[6]

In 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Miami "America's Cleanest City", for its year-round good air quality, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets and city-wide recycling programs.[7] According to a 2009 UBS study of 73 world cities, Miami was ranked as the richest city in the United States, and the world's fifth-richest city in terms of purchasing power.[8]

Downtown Miami and South Florida are home to the largest concentration of international banks in the United States, and is home to many large companies both nationally and internationally.[9][10] The Civic Center is a major center for hospitals, research institutes, medical centers, and biotechnology industries.

For more than two decades, the Port of Miami, known as the "Cruise Capital of the World" has been the number one cruise passenger port in the world, accommodating some of the world's largest cruise ships and operations, and is currently the busiest in both passenger traffic and cruise lines.[11][12]

HistoryEdit

File:MiamiAvenue1896.jpg
Main article: History of Miami

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The Miami area was first inhabited for more than one thousand years by the Tequestas, but was later claimed for Spain in 1566 by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés. A Spanish mission was constructed one year later in 1567. In 1836, Fort Dallas was built, and the Miami area subsequently became a site of fighting during the Second Seminole War.

Miami holds the distinction of being "the only major city in the United States conceived by a woman, Julia Tuttle,"[13] who was a local citrus grower and a wealthy Cleveland native. The Miami area was better known as "Biscayne Bay Country" in the early years of its growth. Some published reports described the area as a promising wilderness.[14] The area was also characterized as "one of the finest building sites in Florida."[15] The Great Freeze of 1894–95 hastened Miami's growth, as the crops of the Miami area were the only ones in Florida that survived. Julia Tuttle subsequently convinced Henry Flagler, a railroad tycoon, to expand his Florida East Coast Railroad to the region, for which she became known as "the mother of Miami."[16] Miami was officially incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896 with a population of just over 300.[17]

Miami prospered during the 1920s with an increase in population and infrastructure but weakened after the collapse of the Florida land boom of the 1920s, the 1926 Miami Hurricane and the Great Depression in the 1930s. When World War II began, Miami, well-situated due to its location on the southern coast of Florida, played an important role in the battle against German submarines. The war helped to expand Miami's population; by 1940, 172,172 people lived in the city. After Fidel Castro rose to power in 1959, many Cubans sought refuge in Miami, further increasing the population. In the 1980s and 1990s, various crises struck South Florida, among them the Arthur McDuffie beating and the subsequent riot, drug wars, Hurricane Andrew, and the Elián González uproar. Nevertheless, in the latter half of the 20th century, Miami became a major international, financial, and cultural center.

Miami and its metropolitan area grew from just over one thousand residents to nearly five and a half million residents in just 110 years (1896–2006). The city's nickname, The Magic City, comes from this rapid growth. Winter visitors remarked that the city grew so much from one year to the next that it was like magic.[18]

EconomyEdit

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File:Port of Miami 20071208.jpg

Financial and business capitalEdit

Miami is one of the most important financial centers in the United States. It is a major center of commerce, finance, and boasts a strong international business community. According to the ranking of world cities undertaken by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group & Network (GaWC) and based on the level of presence of global corporate service organizations, Miami is considered a "Beta− world city".[4] Miami is ranked 20th worldwide in GDP, and 11th in the United States.[19]

Several large companies are headquartered in or around Miami, including but not limited to: Akerman Senterfitt, Alienware, Arquitectonica, Arrow Air, Bacardi, Benihana, Brightstar Corporation, Burger King, Celebrity Cruises, Carnival Corporation, Carnival Cruise Lines, CompUSA, Crispin Porter + Bogusky, Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company, Espírito Santo Financial Group, Fizber.com, Greenberg Traurig, Holland & Knight, Inktel Direct, Interval International, Lennar, Navarro Discount Pharmacies, Norwegian Cruise Lines, Perry Ellis International, RCTV International, Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines, Ryder Systems, Seabourn Cruise Line, Sedano's, Telefónica USA, TeleFutura, Telemundo, Univision, U.S. Century Bank, Vector Group and World Fuel Services. Because of its proximity to Latin America, Miami serves as the headquarters of Latin American operations for more than 1400 multinational corporations, including AIG, American Airlines, Cisco, Disney, Exxon, FedEx, Kraft Foods, LEO Pharma Americas, Microsoft, Yahoo, Oracle, SBC Communications, Sony, Symantec, Visa International, and Wal-Mart.[20]

Television and music productionEdit

Miami is a major television production center, and the most important city in the U.S. for Spanish language media. Univisión, Telemundo and TeleFutura have their headquarters in Miami, along with their production studios. The Telemundo Television Studios produces much of the original programming for Telemundo, such as their telenovelas and talk shows. In 2011, 85% of Telemundo's original programming was filmed in Miami.[21] Miami is also a major music recording center, with the Sony Music Latin and Universal Music Latin Entertainment headquarters in the city, along with many other smaller record labels. The city also attracts many artists for music video and film shootings.

Real estate developmentEdit

Since 2001, Miami has been undergoing a large building boom with more than 50 skyscrapers rising over Template:Convert built or currently under construction in the city. Miami's skyline is ranked third most impressive in the U.S., behind New York City and Chicago, and 19th in the world according to the Almanac of Architecture and Design.[22] The city currently has the eight tallest (as well as thirteen of the fourteen tallest) skyscrapers in the state of Florida, with the tallest being the Template:Convert Four Seasons Hotel & Tower.[23]

During the mid-2000s, the city witnessed its largest real estate boom since the Florida land boom of the 1920s. During this period, the city had well over a hundred approved high-rise construction projects in which 50 were actually built.[24] In 2007, however, the housing market crashed and stopped any future projects.[25] This rapid high-rise construction, has led to fast population growth in the city's inner neighborhoods, primarily in Downtown, Brickell and Edgewater, with these neighborhoods becoming the fastest-growing areas in the city. The Miami area ranks 8th in the nation in foreclosures.[26] In 2011, Forbes Magazine named Miami the second most miserable city in the United States due to its high foreclosure rate and past decade of corruption among public officials.[27]

International tradeEdit

Miami International Airport and the Port of Miami are among the nation's busiest ports of entry, especially for cargo from South America and the Caribbean. The Port of Miami is the world's busiest cruise port, and MIA is the busiest airport in Florida, and the largest gateway between the United States and Latin America. Additionally, the city has the largest concentration of international banks in the country, primarily along Brickell Avenue in Brickell, Miami's financial district. Due to its strength in international business, finance and trade, many international banks have offices in Downtown such as Espírito Santo Financial Group, which has its U.S. headquarters in Miami. Miami was also the host city of the 2003 Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and is one of the leading candidates to become the trading bloc's headquarters.

As of 2011, the Port of Miami accounts for 176,000 jobs and has an annual economic impact in Miami of $18 billion. It is the 11th-largest cargo container port in the United States. In 2010, a record 4.33 million passengers traveled through the Port of Miami. One in seven of all the world’s cruise passengers start from Miami.[28]

TourismEdit

Tourism is also an important industry in Miami. Along with finance and business, the beaches, conventions, festivals and events draw over 38 million visitors annually into the city, from across the country and around the world, spending $17.1 billion.[29][30] The historical Art Deco district in South Beach, is widely regardedTemplate:Citation needed as one of the most glamorous in the world for its nightclubs, beaches, historical buildings, and shopping. Annual events such as the Sony Ericsson Open, Art Basel, Winter Music Conference, South Beach Wine & Food Festival, and Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week Miami attract millions to the city every year.

Industry, science and environmentEdit

Miami is the home to the National Hurricane Center and the headquarters of the United States Southern Command, responsible for military operations in Central and South America. In addition to these roles, Miami is also an industrial center, especially for stone quarrying and warehousing. These industries are centered largely on the western fringes of the city near Doral and Hialeah.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, in 2004, Miami had the third highest incidence of family incomes below the federal poverty line in the United States, making it the third poorest city in the USA, behind only Detroit, Michigan (ranked #1) and El Paso, Texas (ranked #2.) Miami is also one of the very few cities where its local government went bankrupt, in 2001.[31] However, since that time, Miami has experienced a revival: in 2008, Miami was ranked as "America's Cleanest City" according to Forbes for its year-round good air quality, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets and city-wide recycling programs.[7] In a 2009 UBS study of 73 world cities, Miami was ranked as the richest city in the United States (of four U.S. cities included in the survey) and the world's fifth-richest city, in terms of purchasing power.[8]

GeographyEdit

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At only Template:Convert of land area, Miami has the smallest land area of any major U.S. city with a metro area of at least 2.5 million people.Template:Citation needed The city proper is home to less than 1 in 13 residents of South Florida. Additionally, 52% of Miami-Dade County's population doesn't live in any incorporated city.

Miami and its suburbs are located on a broad plain between the Florida Everglades to the west and Biscayne Bay to the east that also extends from Florida Bay north to Lake Okeechobee. The elevation of the area never rises above Template:Convert[32] and averages at around Template:Convert[33] above mean sea level in most neighborhoods, especially near the coast. The highest undulations are found along the coastal Miami Rock Ridge, whose substrate underlies most of the eastern Miami metropolitan region. The main portion of the city lies on the shores of Biscayne Bay which contains several hundred natural and artificially created barrier islands, the largest of which contains Miami Beach and South Beach. The Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current, runs northward just Template:Convert off the coast, allowing the city's climate to stay warm and mild all year.

GeologyEdit

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The surface bedrock under the Miami area is called Miami oolite or Miami limestone. This bedrock is covered by a thin layer of soil, and is no more than Template:Convert thick. Miami limestone formed as the result of the drastic changes in sea level associated with recent glaciations or ice ages. Beginning some 130,000 years ago the Sangamonian Stage raised sea levels to approximately Template:Convert above the current level. All of southern Florida was covered by a shallow sea. Several parallel lines of reef formed along the edge of the submerged Florida plateau, stretching from the present Miami area to what is now the Dry Tortugas. The area behind this reef line was in effect a large lagoon, and the Miami limestone formed throughout the area from the deposition of oolites and the shells of bryozoans. Starting about 100,000 years ago the Wisconsin glaciation began lowering sea levels, exposing the floor of the lagoon. By 15,000 years ago, the sea level had dropped to 300 to Template:Convert below the contemporary level. The sea level rose quickly after that, stabilizing at the current level about 4000 years ago, leaving the mainland of South Florida just above sea level.

Beneath the plain lies the Biscayne Aquifer,[35] a natural underground source of fresh water that extends from southern Palm Beach County to Florida Bay, with its highest point peaking around the cities of Miami Springs and Hialeah. Most of the South Florida metropolitan area obtains its drinking water from this aquifer. As a result of the aquifer, it is not possible to dig more than Template:Convert beneath the city without hitting water, which impedes underground construction. For this reason, the mass transit systems in and around Miami are elevated or at-grade.

Most of the western fringes of the city extend into the Everglades, a subtropical marshland located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida. This causes occasional problems with local wildlife such as alligators venturing into Miami communities and major highways.

In terms of land area, Miami is one of the smallest major cities in the United States. According to the US Census Bureau, the city encompasses a total area of Template:Convert. Of that area, Template:Convert is land and Template:Convert is water. That means Miami comprises over 400,000 people in a mere Template:Convert, making it one of the most densely populated cities in the United States, along with New York City, San Francisco, and Chicago among others. Miami is located at Template:Coord.Template:GR

ClimateEdit

Main article: Climate of Miami
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Miami has a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification Am)[36] with hot and humid summers and short, warm winters, with a marked drier season in the winter. Its sea-level elevation, coastal location, position just above the Tropic of Cancer, and proximity to the Gulf Stream shapes its climate. With January averaging Template:Convert, winter features mild to warm temperatures; cool air usually settles after the passage of a cold front, which produces much of the little amount of rainfall. Lows sometimes fall below Template:Convert, but very rarely below Template:Convert. Highs generally range between Template:Convert. The wet season begins some time in May, ending in mid-October. During this period, temperatures are in the mid 80s to low 90s (29–35 °C), accompanied by high humidity, though the heat is often relieved by afternoon thunderstorms or a sea breeze that develops off the Atlantic Ocean, which then allow lower temperatures, but conditions still remain very muggy. Much of the year's Template:Convert of rainfall occurs during this period.

Extremes range from Template:Convert on Feb 3, 1917 to Template:Convert on July 21, 1940.[37] Miami has never recorded an accumulation of snow, and has only once recorded snow flurries, on January 19, 1977.[38]

Hurricane season officially runs from June 1 through November 30, although hurricanes can develop beyond those dates. The most likely time for Miami to be hit is during the peak of the Cape Verde season which is mid-August through the end of September.[39] Although tornadoes are uncommon in the Miami area, a tornado struck the city in 1925 and again in 1997.

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NeighborhoodsEdit

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Main article: Neighborhoods of Miami

Miami is partitioned into many different sections, roughly into North, South, West and Downtown. The heart of the city is Downtown Miami and is technically on the eastern side of the city. This area includes Brickell, Virginia Key, Watson Island, and the Port of Miami. Downtown is South Florida's central business district, and Florida's largest and most influential central business district. Downtown has the largest concentration of international banks in the U.S. along Brickell Avenue. Downtown is home to many major banks, courthouses, financial headquarters, cultural and tourist attractions, schools, parks and a large residential population. East of Downtown, across Biscayne Bay is South Beach. Just northwest of Downtown, is the Civic Center, which is Miami's center for hospitals, research institutes and biotechnology with hospitals such as Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami VA Hospital, and the University of Miami's Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine.

The southern side of Miami includes Coral Way, The Roads and Coconut Grove. Coral Way is a historic residential neighborhood built in 1922 connecting Downtown with Coral Gables, and is home to many old homes and tree-lined streets. Coconut Grove was established in 1825 and is the location of Miami's City Hall in Dinner Key, the Coconut Grove Playhouse, CocoWalk, many nightclubs, bars, restaurants and bohemian shops, and as such, is very popular with local college students. It is a historic neighborhood with narrow, winding roads, and a heavy tree canopy. Coconut Grove has many parks and gardens such as Villa Vizcaya, The Kampong, The Barnacle Historic State Park, and is the home of the Coconut Grove Convention Center, as well as many of the country's most prestigious private schools, and numerous historic homes and estates.

The western side of Miami includes Little Havana, West Flagler, and Flagami, and is home to many of the city's traditionally immigrant neighborhoods. Although at one time a mostly Jewish neighborhood, today western Miami is home to immigrants from mostly Central America and Cuba, while the west central neighborhood of Allapattah is a multicultural community of many ethnicities.

The northern side of Miami includes Midtown, a district with a great mix of diversity with many West Indians, Hispanics, European Americans, bohemians, and artists. Edgewater, and Wynwood, are neighborhoods of Midtown and are made up mostly of high-rise residential towers and are home to the Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts. The wealthier residents usually live in the northeastern part, in Midtown, the Design District, and the Upper East Side, with many sought after 1920s homes and home of the MiMo Historic District, a style of architecture originated in Miami in the 1950s. The northern side of Miami, also has notable African American and Caribbean immigrant communities such as Little Haiti, Overtown (home of the Lyric Theater), and Liberty City.

CultureEdit

Entertainment and performing artsEdit

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Miami is home to many entertainment venues, theaters, museums, parks and performing arts centers. The newest addition to the Miami arts scene is the Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts, the second-largest performing arts center in the United States after the Lincoln Center in New York City, and is the home of the Florida Grand Opera. Within it are the Ziff Ballet Opera House, the center's largest venue, the Knight Concert Hall, the Carnival Studio Theater and the Peacock Rehearsal Studio. The center attracts many large scale operas, ballets, concerts, and musicals from around the world and is Florida's grandest performing arts center. Other performing arts venues in Miami include the Gusman Center for the Performing Arts, Coconut Grove Playhouse, Colony Theatre, Lincoln Theatre, New World Symphony House, Actor's Playhouse at the Miracle Theatre, Jackie Gleason Theatre, Manuel Artime Theater, Ring Theatre, Playground Theatre, Wertheim Performing Arts Center, the Fair Expo Center and the Bayfront Park Amphitheater for outdoor music events.

The city attracts a large number of musicians, singers, actors, dancers, and orchestral players. Miami has numerous orchestras, symphonies and performing art conservatories. Some of these include the Florida Grand Opera, Frost School of Music, Miami City Ballet, Miami Conservatory, Miami Wind Symphony, New World School of the Arts, New World Symphony Orchestra, as well as the music, theater and art schools of the city's many universities and schools.

The city is home to numerous museums as well, many of which are in Downtown. These include the Bass Museum, Coral Gables Museum, Frost Art Museum, Historical Museum of Southern Florida, Jewish Museum of Florida, Lowe Art Museum, Miami Art Museum, Miami Children's Museum, Miami Science Museum, Museum of Contemporary Art, Vizcaya Museum and Gardens, Wolfsonian-FIU Museum and the Miami Cultural Center, home of the Miami Main Library.

Miami is also a major fashion center, home to models and some of the top modeling agencies in the world. Miami is also host to many fashion shows and events, including the annual Miami Fashion Week and the Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week Miami held in the Wynwood Art District.[40] Miami is also the home of the world's largest art exhibition, dubbed the "Olympics of Art", Art Basel Miami Beach. The event is held annually in December, and attracts thousands of visitors from around the world.

ParksEdit

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Miami's tropical weather allows for year-round outdoors activities. The city has numerous marinas, rivers, bays, canals, and the Atlantic Ocean, which make boating, sailing, and fishing popular outdoors activities. Biscayne Bay has numerous coral reefs which make snorkeling and scuba diving popular. There are over 80 parks and gardens in the city.[41] The largest and most popular parks are Bayfront Park and Bicentennial Park (located in the heart of Downtown and the location of the American Airlines Arena and Bayside Marketplace), Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Key Biscayne (Crandon Park and Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park), Tropical Park, Peacock Park, Morningside Park, Virginia Key, and Watson Island.

Other popular cultural destinations in the area include Jungle Island, Zoo Miami, Miami Seaquarium, Coral Castle, St. Bernard de Clairvaux Church, and the Charles Deering Estate.

MusicEdit

File:Club Space in Downtown Miami.jpg

Miami music is varied. Cubans brought the conga and rumba to Miami from their homelands instantly popularizing it in American culture. Dominicans brought bachata, and merengue, while Colombians brought vallenato and cumbia, and Brazilians brought samba. West Indians and Caribbean people have brought reggae, soca, kompa, zouk, calypso, and steel pan to the area as well.

In the early 1970s, the Miami disco sound came to life with TK Records, featuring the music of KC and the Sunshine Band, with such hits as "Get Down Tonight", "(Shake, Shake, Shake) Shake Your Booty" and "That's the Way (I Like It)"; and the Latin-American disco group, Foxy (band), with their hit singles "Get Off" and "Hot Number". Miami-area natives George McCrae and Teri DeSario were also popular music artists during the 1970s disco era. The Bee Gees moved to Miami in 1975 and have lived here ever since then. Miami-influenced, Gloria Estefan and the Miami Sound Machine, hit the popular music scene with their Cuban-oriented sound and had huge hits in the 1980s with "Conga" and "Bad Boys".

Miami is also considered a "hot spot" for dance music, Freestyle, a style of dance music popular in the 80's and 90's heavily influenced by Electro, hip-hop, and disco. Many popular Freestyle acts such as Pretty Tony, Debbie Deb, Stevie B, and Exposé, originated in Miami. Indie/folk acts Cat Power and Iron & Wine are based in the city,[42] while alternative hip hop artist Sage Francis, electro artist Uffie, and the electroclash duo Avenue D were born in Miami, but musically based elsewhere. Also, ska punk band Against All Authority is from Miami, and rock/metal bands Nonpoint and Marilyn Manson each formed in neighboring Fort Lauderdale. Popular Cuban American female recording artist, Ana Cristina, was born in Miami in 1985, and became the first Hispanic person in history to perform the "Star Spangled Banner" at a presidential inauguration.

The 80's and 90's also brought the genre of high energy Miami Bass to dance floors and car subwoofers throughout the country. Miami Bass spawned artists like 2 Live Crew (featuring Uncle Luke), 95 South, Tag Team, 69 Boyz, Quad City DJ's, and Freak Nasty. Examples of these songs are "Whoomp! (There It Is)" by Tag Team in 1993, "Tootsee Roll" by 69 Boyz in 1994, and "C'mon N' Ride It (The Train)" by the Quad City DJ's in 1996. These songs all reached the top 10 in the pop charts and gave Miami Bass a new commercial success.

Miami is also home to a vibrant techno and dance scene and hosts the Winter Music Conference, the largest dance event in the world, Ultra Music Festival and many electronica music-themed celebrations and festivals. Along with neighboring Miami Beach, Miami is home to nightclubs such as Space, Mansion, Parkwest, Ink, and Cameo. The city is known to be part of clubland, along with places such as Mykonos, Ibiza and Ayia Napa.

There are also several rap and hip hop artists out of Miami. They include Trick Daddy, Trina, Pitbull, Pretty Ricky, DJ Khaled, Flo-Rida, Jackie-O, Rick Ross, DJ Laz, and the Miami Bass group 2 Live Crew.

MediaEdit

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File:Miami Herald building.jpg

Miami has one of the largest television markets in the nation and the second largest in the state of Florida.[43] Miami has several major newspapers, the main and largest newspaper being The Miami Herald. El Nuevo Herald is the major and largest Spanish-language newspaper. Both The Miami Herald and El Nuevo Herald are Miami's and South Florida's main, major and largest newspapers and are both headquartered in Downtown Miami in Herald Plaza.

Other major newspapers include Miami Today, headquartered in Brickell, Miami New Times, headquartered in Midtown, Miami Sun Post, South Florida Business Journal, Miami Times, and Biscayne Boulevard Times. An additional Spanish-language newspapers, Diario Las Americas also serve Miami. The Miami Herald is Miami's primary newspaper with over a million readers and is headquartered in Downtown in Herald Plaza. Several other student newspapers from the local universities, such as the oldest, the University of Miami's The Miami Hurricane, Florida International University's The Beacon, Miami-Dade College's The Metropolis, Barry University's The Buccaneer, amongst others. Many neighborhoods and neighboring areas also have their own local newspapers such as the Coral Gables Tribune, Biscayne Bay Tribune, and the Palmetto Bay News.

A number of magazines circulate throughout the greater Miami area, including Miami Monthly, Southeast Florida's only city/regional; Ocean Drive, a hot-spot social scene glossy, and South Florida Business Leader.

Miami is also the headquarters and main production city of many of the world's largest television networks, record label companies, broadcasting companies and production facilities, such as Telemundo, TeleFutura, Galavisión, Mega TV, Univisión, Univision Communications, Inc., Universal Music Latin Entertainment, RCTV International and Sunbeam Television. In 2009, Univisión announced plans to build new production studios in Miami, dubbed 'Univisión Studios'. Univisión Studios will be headquartered in Miami, and will produce programming for all of Univisión Communications' television networks.[44]

Miami is the twelfth largest radio market[45] and the seventeenth largest television market[46] in the United States. Television stations serving the Miami area include: WAMI (Telefutura), WBFS (My Network TV), WSFL (The CW), WFOR (CBS), WHFT (TBN), WLTV (Univision), WPLG (ABC), WPXM (ION), WSCV (Telemundo), WSVN (Fox), WTVJ (NBC), WPBT (PBS), and WLRN (also PBS).

AccentEdit

Template:See also In Miami, a unique accent, commonly called the "Miami accent", is widely spoken. It developed mostly by second- or third-generation Hispanics whose first language was English. It is very similar to accents in the Northeast, but contains a rhythm and pronunciation heavily influenced by Spanish. However, a Miami accent is not Spanish-accented English, as many Miami residents who are not Hispanic, or do not speak Spanish, speak with the Miami accent as well. It is most common amongst those born and raised in Miami, and can commonly be heard spoken by Blacks and White non-Hispanics, as well as Hispanics. However, not all Miamians have the accent. The accent is acquired in some areas, but not others.[47][48]

SportsEdit

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Miami's main four sports teams are the Miami Dolphins, the NFL team, Miami Heat, the NBA team, Florida Marlins, the MLB team, and the Florida Panthers, the NHL team. As well as having all four major professional teams, Miami is also home to Miami FC, Miami Tropics, the Sony Ericsson Open for professional tennis, numerous greyhound racing tracks, marinas, jai alai venues, and golf courses.

The Miami Heat is currently the only major professional sports team that plays its games within Miami's city limits at the American Airlines Arena. The team recently won the 2006 NBA Finals, winning the series 4-2 over the Dallas Mavericks. The Miami Dolphins and the Florida Marlins both play their games in Miami Gardens. The Orange Bowl, a member of the Bowl Championship Series, hosts their college football championship games at Sun Life Stadium. The stadium has also hosted the Super Bowl; the Miami metro area has hosted the game a total of nine times (four Super Bowls in Dolphin Stadium, including Super Bowl XLI and five at the Miami Orange Bowl), tying New Orleans for the most games. In 2009, construction began on a new ballpark for the Florida Marlins within the city limits of Miami on the site of the old Orange Bowl stadium. The ballpark is expected to open in 2012 and the team's name is expected to be changed to the Miami Marlins.

Miami FC, Florida's only professional soccer team, plays at Tropical Park Stadium. Miami signed world-famed soccer player Romario in March 2006 to a one year deal. The Florida Panthers NHL team plays in neighboring Broward County at the BankAtlantic Center in the city of Sunrise. Miami is also home to Paso Fino horses, where competitions are held at Tropical Park Equestrian Center.

Miami is also the home of many college sports teams. The two largest are the University of Miami Hurricanes, whose football team formerly played at the Miami Orange Bowl from 1937 until 2008, moving to Sun Life Stadium subsequently, and Florida International University Golden Panthers whose football team play at FIU Stadium.

A number of defunct teams were located in Miami, including the Miami Floridians (ABA), Miami Matadors (ECHL), Miami Manatees (WHA2), Miami Gatos (NASL), Miami Screaming Eagles (WHA), Miami Seahawks (AAFC), Miami Sol (WNBA), Miami Toros (NASL), Miami Tropics (SFL), Miami Tropics (ABA), and the Miami Hooters (Arena Football League). The Miami Fusion, a defunct Major League Soccer team played at Lockhart Stadium in nearby Broward County.

Miami professional sports teams
Club Sport League Venue League Championships
Miami Dolphins Football National Football League; AFC Sun Life Stadium Super Bowl (2)
Florida Panthers Hockey National Hockey League BankAtlantic Center none
Miami Heat Basketball National Basketball Association American Airlines Arena NBA Finals (1)
Florida Marlins Baseball Major League Baseball; NL Sun Life Stadium
Miami Ballpark (2012)
World Series (2)
Miami FC Soccer United Soccer League First Division Tropical Park Stadium none


Miami college sports teams
College / Athletics Football Football
venue
Basketball Basketball
venue
Conference National Championships
(Most Recent)
Miami Hurricanes Miami football Sun Life Stadium Miami basketball BankUnited Center Atlantic Coast Conference 30 (2001 – Football & Baseball)
FIU Golden Panthers FIU football FIU Stadium FIU basketball U.S. Century Bank Arena Sun Belt Conference 4 (1984 – Men's Soccer)
Barry Buccaneers  –  – Barry basketball Health & Sports Center Sunshine State Conference 7 (2007 – Men's Golf)
NSU Sharks  –  – NSU basketball Don Taft UC Arena Sunshine State Conference 12 (2010 – Women's Golf)

Notable peopleEdit

Main article: List of people from Miami

DemographicsEdit

Miami population
Year City
proper[49]
Metro
area[50]
1900 1,681 N/A
1910 5,471 N/A
1920 29,549 66,542
1930 110,637 214,830
1940 172,172 387,522
1950 249,276 693,705
1960 291,688 1,497,099
1970 334,859 2,236,645
1980 346,865 3,220,844
1990 358,548 4,056,100
2000 362,470 5,007,564
2010 399,457[51] 5,564,635

Miami is the 42nd most populous city in the U.S. The Miami metropolitan area, which includes Miami-Dade, Broward and Palm Beach counties, had a combined population of more than 5.5 million people, ranked seventh largest in the United States,[52] and is the largest metropolitan area in the Southeastern United States. As of 2008, the United Nations estimates that the Miami Urban Agglomeration is the 44th-largest in the world.[53] As of the census of 2000, there were 362,470 people, 134,198 households, and 83,336 families residing in the city. The population density was 10,160.9 per square mile (3,923.5/km2). There were 148,388 housing units at an average density of 4,159.7 per square mile (1,606.2/km2) or a density of 7 units per acre.

As of 2010,[54] the ethnic composition of Miami was as follows:

Miami Demographics
2010 CensusMiamiMiami-Dade CountyFlorida
Total population399,4572,496,43518,801,310
Population, percent change, 2000 to 2010+10.2%+10.8%+17.6%
Population density11,135.9/sq mi1,315.5/sq mi350.6/sq mi
White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic)72.6%73.8%75.0%
(Non-Hispanic White or Caucasian)11.9%15.4%57.9%
Black or African-American19.2%18.9%16.0%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)70.0%65.0%22.5%
Asian1.0%1.5%2.4%
Native American or Native Alaskan0.3%0.2%0.4%
Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian0.0%0.0%0.1%
Two or more races (Multiracial)2.7%2.4%2.5%
Some Other Race4.2%3.2%3.6%

As of 2000, in terms of national origin and/or ethnic origin, 34.1% of the populace was Cuban,[55] while 5.6% of the city's population was Nicaraguan,[56] 5.5% of the population was Haitian,[57] 3.3% of the population was Honduran,[58] 1.7% of all residents were Dominican,[59] and 1.6% of the population was Colombian.[60] In 2004, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) ranked Miami first in terms of percentage of residents born outside of the country it is located in (59%), followed by Toronto (50%).

In 2009, there were 158,297 households out of which 26.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.6% were married couples living together, 18.7% have a female head of household with no husband present, and 37.9% were non-families. 30.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.25. The age distribution was 21.7% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 98.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.3 males.

In 2009, the median income for a household in the city was $29,812, and the median income for a family was $33,814. The per capita income for the city was $19,846. About 21.7% of families and 26.3% of the population were below the poverty line.

Miami's explosive population growth has been driven by internal migration from other parts of the country, primarily up until the 1980s, as well as by immigration, primarily from the 1960s to the 1990s. Today, immigration to Miami has slowed significantly and Miami's growth today is attributed greatly to its fast urbanization and high-rise construction, which has increased its inner city neighborhood population densities, such as in Downtown, Brickell, and Edgewater, where one area in Downtown alone saw a 2,069% increase in population in the 2010 Census. Miami is regarded as more of a multicultural mosaic, than it is a melting pot, with residents still maintaining much of, or some of their cultural traits. The overall culture of Miami is heavily influenced by its large population of Hispanics, and Blacks, mainly from the Caribbean islands.

File:Plymouth Congregational Church in Miami.jpg

Today, the Miami area has a sizable community of citizens, illegal immigrants, and permanent residents, of Americans, Argentines, , Bahamians, Barbadian, Bolivians, Brazilians, Canadians, Chileans, Chinese, Colombians, Costa Ricans, Cubans, Dominicans, Ecuadorans, French, Germans, Greeks, Guatemalans, Guayanese, Haitians, Hondurans, Jamaicans, Koreans, Indians, Italians, Mexicans, Nicaraguans, Panamanians, Peruvians, Russians, Salvadoran, Spanish, Trinidadians and Tobagonians, Turks, South Africans, Venezuelans, and Puerto Ricans. Template:Citation needed While commonly thought of as a city mainly of Latino and Black Caribbean immigrants, the Miami area is home to large French, French Canadian, German, Italian, and Russian communities. Template:Citation neededThe communities have grown to a prominent place in Miami and its suburbs, creating ethnic enclave neighborhoods such as Little Buenos Aires, Little Haiti, Little Havana, Little Managua, Little Brazil, Little Moscow, Little San Juan, and Little Tel Aviv.Template:Citation needed

LanguagesEdit

As of 2000, speakers of Spanish as their first language accounted for 66.75% of residents, English by 25.45%, Haitian Creole by 5.20%, and French speakers comprised 0.76% of the population.[61] Other languages that were spoken throughout the city include Portuguese at 0.41%, German at 0.18%, Italian at 0.16%, Arabic at 0.15%, Chinese at 0.11%, and Greek at 0.08% of the population. Miami also has one of the largest percentage populations in the U.S. that have residents who speak first languages other than English at home (74.55%).[61]

Due to the increase in Spanish-speaking residents, by 2008 some English-speakers felt marginalized due to difficulties in conducting business.[62]

Civic engagementEdit

Organizations such as the Miami-Dade Salvation Army and its iconic Red Kettle Christmas Campaign, Hands On Miami, City Year Miami, Human Services Coalition of South Florida, and Citizens for a Better South Florida, among many other organizations have been working to engage Miamians in volunteerism.

GovernmentEdit

File:Miami FL Pan Am Bldg city hall02.jpg
Main article: Government of the City of Miami

The government of the City of Miami (proper) uses the mayor-city commissioner system. The city commission consists of five commissioners, are elected from single member districts. The city commission constitutes the governing body with powers to pass ordinances adopt regulations and exercise all powers conferred upon the city in the city charter.The mayor is elected at large and appoints a city manager. The City of Miami is governed by Mayor Tomás Regalado and 5 City commissioners which oversee the five districts in the City. It holds regular meetings in the City Hall of Miami located in 3500 Pan American Drive Miami, Florida 33133 in the neighborhood of Coconut Grove on Dinner Key.

City councilEdit

Template:See also

  • Tomás Regalado – Mayor of the City of Miami
  • Wifredo "Willy" Gort – City of Miami Commissioner, District 1
  • Marc Sarnoff – City of Miami Commissioner, District 2
  • Frank Carollo – City of Miami Commissioner, District 3
  • Francis Suarez – City of Miami Commissioner, District 4
  • Richard P. Dunn – City of Miami Commissioner, District 5

City managementEdit

  • (See City infobox)

EducationEdit

Public schoolsEdit

Main article: Miami-Dade County Public Schools
File:Coral Gables FL Miami Senior High04.jpg
File:FIU OE.JPG

Public schools in Miami are governed by Miami-Dade County Public Schools, which is the largest school district in Florida and the fourth-largest in the United States. As of September 2008 it has a student enrollment of 385,655 and over 392 schools and centers. The district is also the largest minority public school system in the country, with 60% of its students being of Hispanic origin, 28% African American, 10% White (non-Hispanic) and 2% non-white of other minorities.[63] Miami is home to some of the nation's best high schools, such as Design and Architecture High School, ranked the nation's best magnet school, MAST Academy, Coral Reef High School, ranked 20th-best public high school in the U.S., Miami Palmetto High School, and the New World School of the Arts.[64] M-DCPS is also one of a few public school districts in the United States to offer optional bilingual education in Spanish, Haitian Creole, and Mandarin Chinese.

Private schoolsEdit

Miami is home to several prestigious Roman Catholic, Jewish and non-denominational private schools. The Archdiocese of Miami operates the city's Catholic private schools, which include: St. Hugh Catholic School, St. Agatha Catholic School, St. Theresa School, Immaculata-Lasalle High School, Our Lady of Lourdes Academy, Monsignor Edward Pace High School, Carrollton School of the Sacred Heart, Archbishop Curley-Notre Dame High School, St. Brendan High School, amongst numerous other elementary and high schools.

All-boy Catholic college preparatory schools are Christopher Columbus High School and Belen Jesuit Preparatory School; which are one of the top Catholic high school's in the nation.

Non-denominational private schools in Miami are Ransom Everglades, Palmer Trinity School, Gulliver Preparatory School, and Miami Country Day School. Other schools in the outlying areas include Samuel Scheck Hillel Community Day School, Dade Christian School, and Westminster Christian School.

Colleges and universitiesEdit

File:University of Miami Otto G. Richter Library.jpg

Colleges and universities in and around Miami:

Overall, amongst Miamians 25 years and older, 67% had a high school diploma, and 22% had a bachelors degree or higher.[65]

In 2011, Miami was ranked as the sixth most-read city in the U.S. with high book sales.[66]

Professional training programsEdit

Miami is also home to both for-profit and nonprofit organizations that offer a range of professional training and other, related educational programs. Per scholas, for example is a nonprofit organization that offers free professional certification training directed towards successfully passing CompTIA A+ and Network+ certification exams as a route to securing jobs and building careers.[67] [68] [69]

TransportationEdit

AirportsEdit

File:Miami International Airport aerial 2007.jpg

Miami International Airport, serves as the primary international airport of the Greater Miami Area. One of the busiest international airports in the world, Miami International Airport caters to over 35 million passengers a year. Identifiable locally, as well as several worldwide authorities, as MIA or KMIA, the airport is a major hub and the single largest international gateway for American Airlines, the world's second-largest passenger air carrier. Miami International is the busiest airport in Florida, and is the United States' second-largest international port of entry for foreign air passengers behind New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport, and is the seventh-largest such gateway in the world. The airport's extensive international route network includes non-stop flights to over seventy international cities in North and South America, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East.

Alternatively, nearby Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport also serves commercial traffic in the Miami area.[70] Opa-Locka Airport in Opa-Locka and Kendall-Tamiami Airport in an unincorporated area serve general aviation traffic in the Miami area.

Port of MiamiEdit

File:Miami-florida-royal-caribbean-building.jpg

Miami is home to one of the largest ports in the United States, the Port of Miami. It is the largest cruise ship port in the world. The port is often called the "Cruise Capital of the World" and the "Cargo Gateway of the Americas".[71] It has retained its status as the number one cruise/passenger port in the world for well over a decade accommodating the largest cruise ships and the major cruise lines. In 2007, the port served 3,787,410 passengers.[72] Additionally, the port is one of the nation's busiest cargo ports, importing 7.8 million tons of cargo in 2007.[72] Among North American ports, it ranks second only to the Port of South Louisiana in New Orleans in terms of cargo tonnage imported/exported from Latin America. The port is on Template:Convert and has 7 passenger terminals. China is the port's number one import country, and Honduras is the number one export country. Miami has the world's largest amount of cruise line headquarters, home to: Carnival Cruise Lines, Celebrity Cruises, Norwegian Cruise Line, Oceania Cruises, and Royal Caribbean International.

On May 24, 2010, construction began on the $1 billion Miami port tunnel that will serve the Port of Miami.[73]

Public transportationEdit

File:Tri-Rail at Delray Beach Station.jpg
Main article: Miami-Dade Transit

Public transportation in Miami is operated by Miami-Dade Transit and SFRTA, and includes commuter rail (Tri-Rail), heavy-rail rapid transit (Metrorail), an elevated people mover (Metromover), and buses (Metrobus). Miami has Florida's highest transit ridership as about 17% of Miamians use transit on a daily basis.[74]

Miami's heavy-rail rapid transit system, Metrorail, is an elevated system comprising 22 stations on a 22-mile (36-km)-long line. Metrorail runs from the western suburbs of Hialeah and Medley through the Civic Center, Downtown, Brickell, Coconut Grove, Coral Gables, South Miami and ends in the southern suburban neighborhood of Kendall; construction on a direct Metrorail connection to Miami International Airport began in 2009 with expected passenger service beginning in early 2012.[75] A free, elevated people mover, Metromover, operates 21 stations on three different lines in Downtown, with a station at roughly every two blocks of Downtown and Brickell. Several expansion projects are being funded by a transit development sales tax surcharge throughout Miami-Dade County.

Tri-Rail, a commuter rail system operated by the South Florida Regional Transportation Authority (SFRTA), runs from Miami International Airport northward to West Palm Beach, making eighteen stops throughout Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties.

Construction is currently underway on the Miami Intermodal Center and Miami Central Station, a massive transportation hub servicing Metrorail, Amtrak, Tri-Rail, Metrobus, Greyhound Lines, taxis, rental cars, MIA Mover, private automobiles, bicycles and pedestrians adjacent to Miami International Airport. Completion of the Miami Intermodal Center is expected to be completed by 2010, and will serve over 150,000 commuters and travelers in the Miami area. Phase I of Miami Central Station is scheduled to be completed in June 2010, and Phase II in 2011.

Two new light rail systems, Baylink and the Miami Streetcar, have been proposed and are currently in the planning stage. BayLink would connect Downtown with South Beach, and the Miami Streetcar would connect Downtown with Midtown.

RailEdit

Miami is the southern terminus of Amtrak's Atlantic Coast services, running two lines, the Silver Meteor and the Silver Star, both terminating in New York City. The Miami Amtrak Station is located in the suburb of Hialeah near the Tri-Rail/Metrorail Station on NW 79 St and NW 38 Ave. Current construction of the Miami Central Station will move all Amtrak operations from its current out-of-the-way location to a centralized location with Metrorail, MIA Mover, Tri-Rail, Miami International Airport, and the Miami Intermodal Center all within the same station closer to Downtown. The station is expected to be completed by 2012.[76]

Florida High Speed Rail was planned to connect Miami with Orlando and Tampa in a single line, but was canceled in 2011.

RoadEdit

File:Venetian Causeway South Beach.jpg

Miami's road system is based along the numerical "Miami Grid" where Flagler Street forms the east-west baseline and Miami Avenue forms the north-south meridian. The corner of Flagler Street and Miami Avenue is in the middle of Downtown in front of the Downtown Macy's (formerly the Burdine's headquarters). The Miami grid is primarily numerical so that, for example, all street addresses north of Flagler Street and west of Miami Avenue have "NW" in their address. Because its point of origin is in Downtown which is close to the coast, therefore, the "NW" and "SW" quadrants are much larger than the "SE" and "NE" quadrants. Many roads, especially major ones, are also named (e.g., Tamiami Trail/SW 8th St), although, with a few notable exceptions (e.g., Coral Way), the number is in more common usage among locals.

All streets and avenues in Miami-Dade County follow the Miami Grid, with a few exceptions, most notably Coral Gables, Hialeah, and Miami Beach. Some neighborhoods, such as The Roads, is thusly named because its streets run off the Miami Grid in a 45-degree angle, and therefore all named roads.

Miami-Dade County is served by four Interstate Highways (I-75, I-95, I-195, I-395) and several U.S. Highways including U.S. Route 1, U.S. Route 27, U.S. Route 41, and U.S. Route 441.

Some of the major Florida State Roads (and their common names) serving Miami are:

Miami has six major causeways that span over Biscayne Bay connecting the western mainland, with the eastern barrier islands along the Atlantic Ocean. The Rickenbacker Causeway is the southernmost causeway and connects Brickell to Virginia Key and Key Biscayne. The Venetian Causeway and MacArthur Causeway connect Downtown with South Beach. The Julia Tuttle Causeway connects Midtown and Miami Beach. The 79th Street Causeway connects the Upper East Side with North Beach. The northernmost causeway, the Broad Causeway, is the smallest of Miami's six causeways, and connects North Miami with Bal Harbour.

In 2007, Miami was identified as having the rudest drivers in the United States, the second year in a row to have been cited, in a poll commissioned by automobile club AutoVantage.[77] Miami is also consistently ranked as one of the most dangerous cities in the United States for pedestrians.[78]

BicyclingEdit

In recent years, the city government under Mayor Manny Diaz, has taken an ambitious stance in support of bicycling in Miami for both recreation and commuting. Every month, the city hosts "Bike Miami", where major streets in Downtown and Brickell are closed to automobiles, and left open for pedestrians and bicyclists. The event began in November 2008, and has doubled in popularity from 1,500 participants to about 3,000 in the October 2009 Bike Miami. This is the longest running such event in the U.S. In October 2009, the city also approved an extensive 20-year plan for bike routes and paths around the city. The city has begun construction of bike routes as of late 2009, and ordinances requiring bike parking in all future construction in the city is now mandatory as of October 2009.[79]

In 2010, Miami was ranked No.44 most bike-friendly city in the U.S. according to Bicycling Magazine.[80]

In popular cultureEdit

File:Moon over Miami.png

In film and televisionEdit

Template:See also Miami is a center for television and film production. The city has acted as the backdrop for many movies, and many television shows, telenovellas, and awards shows have been set or filmed in Miami. In the mid-2000s, Miami started to become a popular backdrop for reality television shows. Additionally, Miami is a major center, worldwide, for Spanish-language television and film production.

In musicEdit

See Miami_(disambiguation)#Music

Miami has inspired the names of musical groups as well as of numerous albums and song titles. For example, the late country singer Keith Whitley (1955–1989) sang a song called "Miami, My Amy", about a special woman from Miami; the song is one of his biggest hits to this day.[81]

In video gamesEdit

The video games, Grand Theft Auto: Vice City (which became one of the best selling video games in history)Template:Citation needed and Grand Theft Auto: Vice City Stories, take place in Vice City, a fictional city inspired by Miami, which includes some of the same architecture and geography. The game also includes characters who speak Haitian Creole and Spanish, as do many people found in Miami.

Sister citiesEdit

Template:See also

See alsoEdit

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NotesEdit

  1. MiamiHerald.com
  2. Template:Cite web
  3. The World Almanac 2011, page 611 (List of US Census Bureau MSA Estimates)
  4. 4.0 4.1 Template:Cite web
  5. Template:Cite web
  6. Template:Cite web
  7. 7.0 7.1 Template:Cite news
  8. 8.0 8.1 Template:Cite web
  9. Nest Seekers International
  10. Brickell – Downtown Miami, Florida
  11. Miami-Dade.gov Port of Miami
  12. Cruise lines departing from the Port of Miami
  13. Henry, Brian. (1995) "Miami Centennial Trivia." South Florida History, Vol. 23 No. 3 Summer, 1995. p. 33
  14. "The Day in St. Augustine — The Hack Line to Biscayne Bay", The Florida Times-Union, 1893-1-10. Retrieved on 2007-8-25.
  15. "A Trip to Biscayne Bay", The Tropical Sun, 1893-3-09. Retrieved on 2006-1-22.
  16. Muir, Helen. (1953) Miami, USA Henry Holt and Company. p. 55
    Template:Citation
  17. Template:Cite web
  18. Template:Cite web
  19. https://www.ukmediacentre.pwc.com/imagelibrary/downloadMedia.ashx?MediaDetailsID=1562
  20. Template:Cite web
  21. http://miamitodaynews.com/news/110623/story4.shtml
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  24. Miami: High rise buildings–All. Emporis. Retrieved on August 25, 2007.
  25. Template:Cite news
  26. Template:Cite news
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  28. http://www.cnbcmagazine.com/story/shore-bet/1346/1/
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  31. Template:Citation
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  40. Template:Cite web
  41. Template:Cite web Template:Dead link
  42. Interview: Cat Power. Pitchfork Media (November 13, 2006). Retrieved on August 25, 2007.
  43. Template:Cite web
  44. Template:Cite web
  45. Template:Cite web
  46. Template:Cite web
  47. http://articles.sun-sentinel.com/2004-06-13/news/0406130047_1_cuban-accent-spanish-sound
  48. http://network.nshp.org/profiles/blogs/the-miami-accent-english-with
  49. Template:Cite web
  50. Template:Cite web
  51. http://2010.census.gov/news/releases/operations/cb11-cn95.html
  52. Template:Cite web
  53. Template:Cite web
  54. Template:Cite news
  55. Template:Cite web
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  59. Template:Cite web
  60. Template:Cite web
  61. 61.0 61.1 Template:Cite web
  62. "In Miami, Spanish becoming primary language." Associated Press at MSNBC. May 29, 2008. Retrieved on March 27, 2010.
  63. Template:Cite web
  64. Template:Cite web
  65. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ACSSAFFFacts?_event=&geo_id=16000US1245000&_geoContext=01000US%7C04000US12%7C16000US1245000&_street=&_county=miami&_cityTown=miami&_state=&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&ActiveGeoDiv=&_useEV=&pctxt=fph&pgsl=160&_submenuId=factsheet_1&ds_name=null&_ci_nbr=null&qr_name=null&reg=null%3Anull&_keyword=&_industry=
  66. http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=176060&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1568187&highlight=
  67. Template:Cite web
  68. Template:Cite web
  69. Template:Cite web
  70. "Southwest Airlines Cities." Southwest Airlines. Retrieved October 30, 2008.
  71. Template:Cite web
  72. 72.0 72.1 Template:Cite web
  73. Template:Cite web
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  75. Template:Cite web Template:Dead link
  76. Template:Cite web
  77. Template:Cite news
  78. Template:Cite news
  79. [1]Template:Dead link
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  81. Template:Cite web
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  83. 83.00 83.01 83.02 83.03 83.04 83.05 83.06 83.07 83.08 83.09 83.10 Template:Cite web
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External linksEdit

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Template:Coord Template:Template group Template:Use mdy datesTemplate:Link GA

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