Stamford is a city in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city is 122,643, making it the fourth largest city in the state and the eighth largest city in New England. Stamford is in the Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk Metro area which is a part of the Greater New York metropolitan area.
- Main article: History of Stamford, Connecticut
Stamford was known as Rippowam by the Native American inhabitants to the region, and the very first European settlers to the area also referred to it as such. The name was later changed to Stamford after a town in Lincolnshire, England. The deed to Stamford was signed on July 1, 1640 between Captain Turner of the New Haven Colony and Chief Ponus. By the Eighteenth century, one of the primary industries of the town was merchandising by water, which was possible due to Stamford's proximity to New York.
In 1692, Stamford was home to a less famous witch trial than the well-known Salem witch trial, which also occurred in 1692. The accusations were less fanatical and smaller-scale but also grew to prominence through gossip and hysterics.
Starting in the late 19th century, New York residents built summer homes on the shoreline, and even back then there were some who moved to Stamford permanently and started commuting to Manhattan by train, although the practice became more popular later. Stamford incorporated as a city in 1893.
In the 1960s and 1970s, Fairfield's commercial real estate boomed as corporations relocated from New York City to peripheral areas. A massive urban redevelopment campaign during that time resulted in a downtown with many tall office buildings. The F.D. Rich Co. was the city-designated urban renewal developer of the downtown in an ongoing redevelopment project that was contentious, beginning in the 1960s and continuing through the 1970s. The company put up what was the city's tallest structure, One Landmark Square, at 21 floors high, and the GTE building (now One Stamford Forum), along with the Marriott Hotel, the Stamford Town Center and many of the other downtown office buildings. One Landmark Square has since been dwarfed by the new 35-story Trump Parc condominium tower(topped out), and soon by the 400-foot 39 story Ritz Carlton Hotel and Residences development, another project by the Rich Company in partnership with Cappelli Enterprises. Over the years, other developers have joined in building up the downtown, a process that continued, with breaks during downturns in the economy, through the 1980s, 1990s and into the new century.
Stamford is situated near the southwestern point of Connecticut. It is bordered on the north by Pound Ridge, New York, to the south by Long Island Sound, by Greenwich to the west, and both Darien and New Canaan to the east.
Stamford experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa). The average high temperature annually is Template:Convert. The average low temperature annually is Template:Convert. The highest recorded temperature was Template:Convert in 2001. The lowest recorded temperature was Template:Convert in 1982. The average warmest month is July. January is the average coolest month. The maximum average precipitation occurs in May. The average precipitation from November to March is Template:Convert. During the winter months, it is not uncommon for snowfall to occur in the northern part of the city, while remaining rain in the downtown and coastal areas of the city. This is mainly due to the tempering effects of Long Island Sound on climate.
Stamford is made up of approximately 45 distinct neighborhoods, including 2 historic districts and 1 large neighborhood/redevelopment project, Harbor Point that has yet to be completed:
- Atlantic Square
- Downtown Stamford Historic District
- Landmark Square
- Mill River Park
- High Ridge
- Hunting Ridge
- Long Ridge
- Revonah Woods
- Turn of River
- Bull's Head
- Harbor Point
- Coastal Gardens
- Commons Park
- Metro Center
- Yale & Towne
- South End Historic District
- Connecticut Avenue
- Hubbard Heights
- Richmond Hill
- Southwood Square
- Spruce Street
- Vidal Court
Stamford possesses four islands in Long Island Sound: Grass Island, Greenway Island, Jack Island and Vincent Island.
The commonly known neighborhoods throughout Stamford (with ZIP Codes that roughly cover the same areas) are as follows:
- 06901 - Downtown.
- 06902 - Cove, East Side, Roxbury, Shippan, Shippan Point, South End, Waterside, West Side, and Westover.
- 06903 - Long Ridge and North Stamford.
- 06905 - Belltown, Hubbard Heights, Newfield, Ridgeway, Revonah Woods, North Stamford, and Turn of River.
- 06906 - Glenbrook.
- 06907 - Springdale.
The population density is 3,101.9 people per square mile (1,197.5/km²).
Age and genderEdit
The proportion of the population under the age of 18 was 22.1%, from 18 to 24 was 7.4%, from 25 to 44 was 35.0%, from 45 to 64 was 21.7%, and 65 years of age or older were 13.8%. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 93.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.9 males.
Stamford has one of the highest educated populations in the US. Nine out of ten are high school graduates. Those possessing a bachelor's degree or higher is estimated at 45.9% of the population. Stamford is tied with Iowa City, Iowa for the US metropolitan area with the highest percentage of the adult population holding a bachelor's degree or higher; 44 percent of adults hold a degree.
Ethnicity and raceEdit
The 2009 Census Population estimate for Stamford is 118,787. A 2009 Census survey estimated 48,676 housing units to be in existence. The average median age of 36.6 is only slightly higher than the US average median age of 36.4. Stamford's population characteristics are as follows (Source:U.S. Census Bureau, 2005-2009 American Community Survey):
- White - 64.9%
- Black - 13.2%
- Asian - 7.2%
- All Other Races - 13.3%
- Two or More Races - 1.4%
- Hispanic - 22.1%
One out of three residents are foreign born. A language other than English is spoken at home by 42% of the population. The main ancestries of the population (Source: 2000 US Census Bureau) are: Italian (16.9%), Irish (10.5%), German (6.6%), Polish (5.6%), and Russian (3.1%). The top ten countries of origin for the foreign-born population (Source: 2000 US Census Bureau) are:
- Haiti - 3,524
- Guatemala - 3,067
- India - 2,577
- Jamaica - 2,289
- Greece - 2,100
- Colombia - 1,937
- China - 1,495
- Mexico - 1,414
- Peru - 1,268
There are 47,317 housing units at an average density of 1,253.6 per square mile (484.0/km²). There are 45,399 households out of which 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.5% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.2% were non-families. 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.13.
According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $72,315, and the median income for a family was $88,205. Males had a median income of $48,386 versus $36,958 for females. The per capita income for the city was $34,987. About 5.4% of families and 7.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.7% of those under age 18 and 9.7% of those age 65 or over.
Stamford is mostly Democratic, home to about 21,500 active registered Democrats and 14,000 Republicans in October 2005. The partisan ratio was 1.5 Democrats per Republican. 100 individuals were registered with minor parties, while roughly 20,000 did not have any party affiliation.
|Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of October 25, 2005|
|Party||Active Voters||Inactive Voters||Total Voters||Percentage||Republican||13,916||5,342||19,258||25.61%||Democratic||21,493||7,115||28,608||38.05%||Unaffiliated||20,118||7,062||27,180||36.15%||Minor Parties||100||40||140||0.19%|
Stamford is located on the main branch of the New Haven Line on the Metro-North Railroad, the commuter rail system for northern metropolitan New York City. Stamford is the third busiest station on the Metro North system and serves as a major transfer point for local trains. Stamford Station is also the terminus of a Metro-North branch that ends in New Canaan, 8 miles (13 km) away, and a part time terminal of Shore Line East trains. Two smaller train stations in Stamford are Glenbrook and Springdale, both a part of the New Canaan branch. With a recent spike in development in the East Side neighborhood, the city is considering putting in a proposal to construct a new stop to service the East Main Street area close to the New Canaan branch overpass.
Commuter trains come into Stamford from all points between New London to the east and New York (Grand Central Terminal) to the south. Several express (non-stop) trains leave Stamford each morning and evening for Grand Central. The average non-stop commute is forty-five minutes. Stamford has seen a significant increase in ridership. Much of this increase is a result of reverse commuting, individuals commuting from New York City to Stamford for work. Trains operate from the Stamford station between 4:43 AM (first departure to Grand Central) until 12:25 AM (last departure to Grand Central). On the weekends the first departure for Grand Central occurs at 5:03 AM. Fares during rush hour (on peak) are higher than during non-rush hour (off peak). On peak fares are charged between 4:43 AM – 9:10 AM for trains originating to Grand Central. Trains in transit to Stamford are charged on peak fares from 5:35 AM – 8:37 AM and from 4:02 PM – 7:40 PM. On peak fares do not apply on weekends and/or holidays. Tickets can be bought on board, yet the surcharge can make the price steep.
Stamford also serves as a station along the Amtrak route. Acela, the high speed train service between Boston and Washington, makes several daily stops in Stamford. Amtrak's Regional (Springfield, Massachusetts to Washington, D.C.) and Vermonter (Saint Albans, Vermont to Washington, D.C.) also make daily stops in Stamford. Amtrak tickets can be purchased on the upper level of the Stamford station.
Late in 2007 the city contracted a private San Francisco company to conduct a 6 month feasibility study to look at the possibility of creating an inner-city light rail line. With the proposed Harbor Point development set to break ground in the South End neighborhood sometime in 2008, the idea is to create a line that would connect the new developments to points north, such as the transportation center, Landmark Square in downtown and other various points up to the Bulls Head area.
Stamford is within 45 minutes to 2 hours of six major airports: two regional, four international. Regional: Westchester County Airport (often referred to as White Plains Airport) which borders the town of Greenwich and Tweed-New Haven Regional Airport. International: LaGuardia Airport and John F. Kennedy International Airport both in Queens, N.Y., Newark Liberty International Airport in Newark & Elizabeth, New Jersey and Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, Hartford County, Connecticut
City bus transportation is provided by CT Transit, which is run and financed by the Connecticut Department of Transportation. The main terminal is adjacent to the train station on State Street, under the I-95 highway. Bus service runs along major arterial roads through the towns of Darien, Norwalk, Greenwich and Port Chester, New York. A non-stop direct route is also offered to White Plains, New York. Commuters can connect in Norwalk to points as far east as Milford and as far north as Danbury. Additional connections can be made in Port Chester and White Plains to all points covered by the Bee-Line bus system in Westchester County.
Greyhound provides some bus service from the lower level of the Stamford train station. Same bus service is provided to New Haven (Union Station), Boston (South Station), and New York (Port Authority).
Two limited-access highways run through the city. Interstate 95 serves as the main route through downtown Stamford with four exits (6-9). The Merritt Parkway runs through the northern part of the city. This road is designated for passenger vehicles only. Any congestion on the Merritt Parkway is mostly likely to occur on the southbound lane in the morning and the northbound in the evening (route to and from New York). At night, due to the absence of lighting visibility on the Merritt Parkway is relatively poor. Stamford exits on the Merritt Parkway are 33-35, and exit 36 is just over the border in New Canaan.
Stamford is also served by four other state highways. Route 1, also known as Main Street in Stamford, is also used as a major artery during the morning and evening commute. Most traffic via Route 1 is short distance or fairly local, yet vehicles have utilized Route 1 during times of heavy congestion on I-95 as a re-route. Route 137 (Washington Boulevard and High Ridge Road) is the main north-south road of the city and runs from the Stamford Transportation Center and serves the Turn of River, North Stamford, and High Ridge sections of the city. Route 104 (Long Ridge Road) branches off from Route 137 to serve the Long Ridge section. Route 106 (Courtland Avenue) serves the Glenbrook neighborhood and continues towards the town of Darien.
- Main article: Economy of Stamford, Connecticut
Among the larger companies with headquarters in Stamford are World Wrestling Entertainment, Tasty Bite and Pitney Bowes. UBS also has its North American headquarters here and its trading floor holds the Guinness World Record as the largest column-less trading floor in the world. Royal Bank of Scotland moved its North American operations into Stamford in 2009, including its RBS Greenwich Capital subsidiary.
Stamford was the ninth-safest city in the United States in 2006 (among cities with populations of 100,000 or more), up from the 11th safest in 2005, according to the FBI. The 2006 ranking represented the sixth consecutive year the city ranked in the top 11. FBI crime statistics for the city showed crime went down 1.7 percent in 2006 because of a plunge in property crimes. But the rate of violent crime went up by a total of 29 percent in the two years 2005 and 2006 combined. The increase was due in part due to violent gang battles, often on the West Side.
The violent crime rate climbed five years in a row up through 2006, and the 2005 increase was also in the double digits. The city's 300-officer police force responded to 393 reports of violent crimes in 2006, up from 353 in 2005 and 305 in 2004. The total number of serious assaults dropped from 183 in 2005 to 172 in 2006, according to city records. Robberies rose from 150 to 197 in 2006. Serious assaults dropped 6 percent.
There were three homicides and 23 rapes in 2006, up from two homicides and 18 rapes in 2005. the city reported 2,697 total crimes. With populations close to that of Stamford, Bridgeport (ranked 25th) reported 8,496, Hartford (ranked 26th) reported 10,955 and Waterbury reported 6,447 (New Haven hasn't reported statistics to the F.B.I. in years.)
Stamford emergency medical servicesEdit
A not-for-profit agency, Stamford Emergency Medical Services (SEMS) provides pre-hospital emergency care in Stamford, Connecticut. SEMS also provides contracted paramedic intercept response to Darien Emergency Medical Services, located in Darien, Connecticut. SEMS is accredited by the Commission on the Accreditation of Ambulance Services (CAAS). All SEMS units are staffed by at least one Connecticut-licensed paramedic. Stamford EMS currently has a fleet of 7 Ambulances, 3 Supervisors Units, as well as a Special Operations Unit and is located at 684 Long Ridge Road.
Stamford's fire protection is provided by five all-volunteer fire departments as well as a paid professional fire department known as the Stamford Fire Rescue Department, or SFRD. The Stamford Fire Rescue Department's primary response district includes the Southern, more urban sections of the city, including Downtown, East Side, West Side, Woodside, and South End areas of the city. The five all-volunteer fire departments' primary response districts include the Northern, more residential sections of the city, from Downtown to the New York State border. The SFRD's 290 paid members staff a total of 9 Engines(Including 2 Quints), 3 Trucks, a Heavy Rescue, and a Deputy Chief's Command Vehicle and operate out of 7 Fire Stations(Including 2 Substations) and also share quarters with two Volunteer Fire Company's Fire Stations. The Stamford Fire Rescue Department responds to over 11,000 emergency calls annually. The five All-volunteer fire departments(Belltown FD, Glenbrook-New Hope FD, Springdale FD, Turn of River FD, and Long Ridge FD) operate 1 to 2 Fire Stations in their own tax districts. The volunteers staff a combined department total of 14 Engines, 3 Trucks, 5 Rescues, and their own Command Vehicles, as many other special units.
Budgeting and districting of the various fire departments throughout the city has been unstable since 2007, due to an extended legal conflict between the volunteer departments and the Malloy administration.Template:Citation needed In 2010, Mayor Mike Pavia and Bobby Valentine proposed an idea to the city council and the city's fire departments to have two fire departments operating in the city: Stamford Fire Rescue, and the Stamford Volunteer Fire Department, which would incorporate four of the five volunteer fire departments into one big combination volunteer/paid fire department. Should the plan be finalized and put into operation the new paid firefighters would staff (in conjunction with the volunteers) volunteer fire apparatus, as they did before 2007. However, this would also mean the removal of Stamford Fire Rescue Engine's 7, 8, and 9 from the Springdale Fire Station and the two Stamford Fire Rescue substations in the Turn of River and Roxbury sections of the city. As of June 2010, the plan is still being looked over and its outcome is yet to be determined. Template:Citation needed
The Stamford Police Department(SPD) is Stamford's only police force and has lost four officers in the line of service since 1938. The 2008 force was composed of 1 chief, 2 assistant chiefs, 7 captains, 11 lieutenants, 52 sergeants, 215 officers and 67 civilian employees. Aside from Police Headquarters, located at 805 Bedford St. in Downtown Stamford, SPD also operates substations in Stamford's West Side at Wilson St. and W. Main St. and at 1137 High Ridge Rd and Hope Street. The current Chief of Police is Robert Nivakoff.
- Main article: Education in Stamford, Connecticut
Stamford has branches of the University of Connecticut, University of Bridgeport and Sacred Heart University. The University of Connecticut's campus is located in a large modern building in downtown that opened in 1998 after extensive renovations to an abandoned former Bloomingdales store that closed in 1990. The branches of the University of Bridgeport and Sacred Heart University are located in the River Bend Executive Center, Fairfield County's premier communication and information high tech park. All are commuter campuses.
As no study has been conducted to assess the cost of education in Stamford, it is difficult to tell whether or not Stamford has a well-funded public education system. Although providing a public education is a state responsibility, Connecticut ranks near the bottom in state share of public education expenditures. Thus, the majority of education funding must come from local governments like that of Stamford. According to the State Department of Education, in the 2004-05 academic year, 42.7% of Stamford's public school students were economically disadvantaged, 34.8% did not have English as a home language and 11.6% were students with disabilities. Research has shown that these populations need additional resources to meet state academic standards. Owing to the state school finance system, the burden of these extra necessary costs of education falls primarily on Stamford's local government. The public school system is an integrated district with racial balance requirements exceeding those of the state of Connecticut. State standards require that a school's racial makeup be within 25% of the community's racial makeup. Stamford's standard is a more strict 10%. Over the years, schools have become unbalanced.
Stamford has several public high schools, Westhill High School, Stamford High School, and the Academy of Information Technology and Engineering. The city also has several private schools, including King Low Heywood Thomas, The Long Ridge School, Trinity Catholic High School,Villa Maria School, and Bi-Cultural Jewish Day School as well as two state charter schools: Trailblazers Academy Charter Middle School and Stamford Academy Charter High School, both operated by human services nonprofit Domus.
Stamford's public library, the Ferguson Library, is one of the largest in Connecticut. The main library downtown is the second in the country to rent space to a Starbucks (since September 1999). The store has its own doors to the street and to the library, and is open earlier and later than the library. The library also shows movies and has a used-book store run by Friends of Ferguson Library.
The library has branches in South End, Springdale, and the Turn of River sections of the city, it also has a bookmobile that runs daily to different neighborhoods. The Turn of River branch, officially called the Harry Bennett Branch, is the largest library branch in the state. That branch also has a used book store run by Friends of Ferguson Library.
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